# Graph neural networks

tags
Neural networks, Graphs

## Basic properties

To operate on graphs, a neural network must be invariant to isomorphism of these graphs. This translates to permutation invariance for the nodes of a graph.

$f(\mathbf{PX}) = f(\mathbf{X})$

Where $$\mathbf{P}$$ is a permutation matrix. For simple sets, this amounts to performing node-wise transformations and use a permutation invariant aggregator (sum/max/avg/…). This was done in (Zaheer et al. 2018).

$f(\mathbf{X}) = \phi\left( \bigoplus_i \psi(\mathbf{x}_i) \right)$

In the case of GNNs, the local neighborhood of a node can also be defined, and therefore the neural network can be written:

$f(\mathbf{X}, \mathbf{A}) = \begin{bmatrix} — g(\mathbf{x}_1 , \mathbf{X}_{\mathcal{N}_1} ) — \newline — g(\mathbf{x}_2 , \mathbf{X}_{\mathcal{N}_2} ) — \newline \vdots\newline — g(\mathbf{x}_n , \mathbf{X}_{\mathcal{N}_n} ) — \end{bmatrix}$

where $$\mathbf{A}$$ is the adjacency matrix of the graph. The function $$g$$ also need to be permutation invariant to ensure the permutation invariance of $$f$$.

The various ways of defining $$g$$ give rise to three main flavours of GNNs:

## Bibliography

1. . . "Deep Sets". Arxiv:1703.06114 [cs, Stat]. http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.06114.

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