- Recurrent neural networks, Unsupervised learning
An echo state network is usually a standard RNN with fixed random weights. The output from this RNN is used as a high dimensional feature map to be fed into a machine learning system.
(Jaeger 2004; Jaeger et al. 2007; Jaeger 2012)
- H. Jaeger. . "Harnessing Nonlinearity: Predicting Chaotic Systems and Saving Energy in Wireless Communication". Science 304 (5667):78–80. DOI.
- Herbert Jaeger, Wolfgang Maass, Jose Principe. . "Special Issue on Echo State Networks and Liquid State Machines". Neural Networks 20 (3):287–89. DOI.
- Herbert Jaeger. . "Long Short-term Memory in Echo State Networks: Details of a Simulation Study". Jacobs University Bremen.