An echo state network is usually a standard RNN with fixed random weights. The output from this RNN is used as a high dimensional feature map to be fed into a machine learning system.
- Jaeger, Herbert, Wolfgang Maass, and Jose Principe. April 2007. "Special Issue on Echo State Networks and Liquid State Machines". Neural Networks 20 (3):287–89.
- Jaeger, H.. April 2004. “Harnessing Nonlinearity: Predicting Chaotic Systems and Saving Energy in Wireless Communication”. Science 304 (5667):78–80.
- Jaeger, Herbert. February 2012. “Long Short-Term Memory in Echo State Networks: Details of a Simulation Study”. Jacobs University Bremen.