Evolution in asynchronous cellular automata by Nehaniv, C. L. (2003)

Cellular automata, Evolution
(Nehaniv 2003)


This paper proposes a general asynchronous extension of CA rules and show that they can be made equivalent to the original CA rule. Applying this extension to H. Sayama’s Evoloop cellular automaton (Sayama 1999), the author creates the first asynchronous implementation of evolution of self-replicators.

One hope formulated by the author is that asynchronicity could help achieve fault-tolerance and self-repair.


  1. . . "Evolution in Asynchronous Cellular Automata". In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Artificial Life, 65–73.

  2. . . “A New Structurally Dissolvable Self-Reproducing Loop Evolving in a Simple Cellular Automata Space”. Artificial Life 5 (4):343–65. DOI.

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