Evolved Open-Endedness, Not Open-Ended Evolution by Pattee, H. H., & Sayama, H. (2019)

(Pattee and Sayama 2019)


Evolution need not have been inherently open-ended in nature, because from a simple cell evolving in a complex self-organising environment new mechanisms might have been created by the organisms themself, effectively rendering them “more” open-ended. Symbolic languages are a striking example of this phenomenon: an open-ended descriptive power where the complexity of the environment is not limiting because language can refer itself recursively to build on its complexity.


  1. . . "Evolved Open-Endedness, Not Open-Ended Evolution". Artificial Life 25 (1):4–8. DOI.

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