Evolved Open-Endedness, Not Open-Ended Evolution by Pattee, H. H., & Sayama, H. (2019)

(Pattee and Sayama 2019)


Evolution need not have been inherently open-ended in nature, because from a simple cell evolving in a complex self-organising environment new mechanisms might have been created by the organisms themself, effectively rendering them “more” open-ended. Symbolic languages are a striking example of this phenomenon: an open-ended descriptive power where the complexity of the environment is not limiting because language can refer itself recursively to build on its complexity.


Pattee, Howard H., and Hiroki Sayama. 2019. “Evolved Open-Endedness, Not Open-Ended Evolution.” Artificial Life 25 (1):4–8.

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