- (Pattee, Sayama 2019)
Evolution need not have been inherently open-ended in nature, because from a simple cell evolving in a complex self-organising environment new mechanisms might have been created by the organisms themself, effectively rendering them “more” open-ended. Symbolic languages are a striking example of this phenomenon: an open-ended descriptive power where the complexity of the environment is not limiting because language can refer itself recursively to build on its complexity.
- Howard H. Pattee, Hiroki Sayama. . "Evolved Open-endedness, Not Open-ended Evolution". Artificial Life 25 (1):4–8. DOI.