Complex Systems

International environmental agreements

From (Pouw et al. 2022):

First, at the international level, universal coalitions are more cost-efficient and effective than fragmented regimes, but more difficult to negotiate and less stable. Second, in developing countries, there is need for substantial external funding to cover the short-run costs of environmental compliance. Third, market-based solutions have been increasingly applied in international agreements but with mixed results.

Climate policies

From (Dechezleprêtre et al. 2022)

Different levels of acceptance for climate policies across countries:

A figure showing a bar plot with the share of respondents that agree that "Climate change is an important problem" or that their country "should take measures to fight climate change"

Figure 1: Figure from the paper cited above showing the share of respondents agreeing that climate change is an important problem.

A figure showing a table with the share of acceptance of various climate policies for each country in the study.

Figure 2: This table shows the acceptance (people who answered from “somewhat” to “strongly”) of various climate policies in each country.

Notably in the table above, middle-income countries seems to be more ready to accept climate policies than high-income countries. This may show that high-income countries resist the measures that they argue are needed to fight climate change. Especially the carbon tax in various forms seems to be less accepted by high-income countries.


  1. . . "Economic Analysis of International Environmental Agreements: Lessons Learnt 2000–2020". International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics. DOI.
  2. . . "Fighting Climate Change: International Attitudes Toward Climate Policies". National Bureau of Economic Research.
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