- Complex Systems
International environmental agreements
From (Pouw et al. 2022):
First, at the international level, universal coalitions are more cost-efficient and effective than fragmented regimes, but more difficult to negotiate and less stable. Second, in developing countries, there is need for substantial external funding to cover the short-run costs of environmental compliance. Third, mar- ket-based solutions have been increasingly applied in international agreements but with mixed results.
- Nicky R. M. Pouw, Hans-Peter Weikard, Richard B. Howarth. . "Economic Analysis of International Environmental Agreements: Lessons Learnt 2000–2020". International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics. DOI.