- Complex Systems
International environmental agreements
From (Pouw et al. 2022):
First, at the international level, universal coalitions are more cost-efficient and effective than fragmented regimes, but more difficult to negotiate and less stable. Second, in developing countries, there is need for substantial external funding to cover the short-run costs of environmental compliance. Third, market-based solutions have been increasingly applied in international agreements but with mixed results.
From (Dechezleprêtre et al. 2022)
Different levels of acceptance for climate policies across countries:
Notably in the table above, middle-income countries seems to be more ready to accept climate policies than high-income countries. This may show that high-income countries resist the measures that they argue are needed to fight climate change. Especially the carbon tax in various forms seems to be less accepted by high-income countries.
- Nicky R. M. Pouw, Hans-Peter Weikard, Richard B. Howarth. . "Economic Analysis of International Environmental Agreements: Lessons Learnt 2000–2020". International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics. DOI.
- Antoine Dechezleprêtre, Adrien Fabre, Tobias Kruse, Bluebery Planterose, Ana Sanchez Chico, Stefanie Stantcheva. . "Fighting Climate Change: International Attitudes Toward Climate Policies". National Bureau of Economic Research.