Complex Systems

Bottomless wonders spring from simple rules, which are repeated without end.

— Mandelbrot, ~1980

When we talk about complex systems in time, we often used the term complex dynamical systems.

Example of complex systems

Can complex systems evolve?

The biosphere is a striking example of very large and intricate complex system. One of its most impressive feature is the fact that it has allowed for intelligent life to develop through evolution.

Can this kind of incredible events happen within other complex systems such as cellular automata?


  1. , eds. . _The Economy as an Evolving Complex System: The Proceedings of the Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, Held September, 1987 in Santa Fe, New Mexico_. 8. print. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity 5. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publ. Co.

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