Bottomless wonders spring from simple rules, which are repeated without end.
— Mandelbrot, ~1980
When we talk about complex systems in time, we often used the term complex dynamical systems.
Example of complex systems
- The economy (Anderson and Global Economy Workshop 1996)
- Boolean networks
- Cellular automata
- Neural networks
Can complex systems evolve?
Can this kind of incredible events happen within other complex systems such as cellular automata?
Anderson, Philip W., and Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, eds. 1996. The Economy as an Evolving Complex System: The Proceedings of the Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, Held September, 1987 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. 8. print. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publ. Co.