Bottomless wonders spring from simple rules, which are repeated without end.
— Mandelbrot, ~1980
When we talk about complex systems in time, we often used the term complex dynamical systems.
Example of complex systems
- The economy (Anderson and Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop 1996)
- Boolean networks
- Cellular automata
- Neural networks
Can complex systems evolve?
Can this kind of incredible events happen within other complex systems such as cellular automata?
- Anderson, Philip W., and Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, eds. 1996. _The Economy as an Evolving Complex System: The Proceedings of the Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, Held September, 1987 in Santa Fe, New Mexico_. 8. print. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity 5. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publ. Co.