Bottomless wonders spring from simple rules, which are repeated without end.
— Mandelbrot, ~1980
When we talk about complex systems in time, we often used the term complex dynamical systems.
Example of complex systems
- The economy (Anderson, Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop 1996)
- Boolean networks
- Cellular automata
- Neural networks
- Many physical systems
Can complex systems evolve?
The biosphere is a striking example of very large and intricate complex system. One of its most impressive feature is the fact that it has allowed for intelligent life to develop through evolution. Like many complex systems, Earth is capable of emergent behavior.
Can this kind of incredible events happen within other complex systems such as cellular automata?
- Philip W. Anderson, Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, eds.. . The Economy as an Evolving Complex System: The Proceedings of the Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, Held September, 1987 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Edited by Philip W. Anderson and Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop. 8. print. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity 5. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publ. Co.