[…] complex systems tend to exhibit both emergence and self-organization. Extreme emergence implies chaos, while extreme self-organization implies immutability. Complexity requires a balance between both emergence and self-organization.
Therefore we can measure complexity as: \[C = 4 S \cdot E\] where \(S\) and \(E\) have been normalized to \([0, 1]\). It is noted that the metric corresponds to phase transitions in several complex systems (citations omitted in quote):
- Gershenson, Carlos. April 30, 2021. "Emergence in Artificial Life". arXiv:2105.03216 [Physics]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2105.03216.