From Sara Walker’s keynote at Alife 2020: The Natural History of Information:

Life is a process whereby information structures matter across space and time.

Why should life be an emergent process? An answer from (Krakauer et al. 2020):

The fact that physics and chemistry are universal—ongoing in stars, solar systems, and galaxies—whereas to the best of our knowledge biology is exclusively a property of earth, supports the view that life is emergent.


  1. . . "The Information Theory of Individuality". Theory in Biosciences 139 (2):209–23.

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