From Sara Walker’s keynote at Alife 2020: The Natural History of Information:

Life is a process whereby information structures matter across space and time.

Why should life be an emergent process? An answer from (Krakauer et al. 2020):

The fact that physics and chemistry are universal—ongoing in stars, solar systems, and galaxies—whereas to the best of our knowledge biology is exclusively a property of earth, supports the view that life is emergent.


Krakauer, David, Nils Bertschinger, Eckehard Olbrich, Jessica C. Flack, and Nihat Ay. 2020. “The Information Theory of Individuality.” Theory in Biosciences 139 (2):209–23.

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